# Joseph L. Gastwirth

# Joseph L. Gastwirth

Professor of Statistics

**Contact:**

**Email:**Joseph L. Gastwirth

**Office Phone:**(202) 994-6548

Professor and Advisor of Statistics

### Books

Statistical Reasoning in Law and Public Policy (1988) Vol. 1 Statistical Concepts and Issues of Fairness. Vol. 2. Tort Law, Evidence and Health. Academic Press: Orlando, Fla.

Statistical Science in the Courtroom (2000) edited by J.L. Gastwirth, Springer: NY.

### Articles

Gastwirth, J.L. (1964), On a Telephone Traffic System With Several Kinds of Service Distributions. Journal of Applied Probability, 1, 77-84.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1965), Asymptotically Most Powerful Rank Tests for the Two-Sample Problem With Censored Data. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 37, 1243-1247.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1965), Percentile Modifications of Sample Rank Tests. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 60, 1127-1141.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1966), On Robust Procedures. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 61, 929-948.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Wolff, S.S. (1966), On the Relation Between a Particular Stochastic Process and Its Two Imbedded Markov Processes. Sankhya, Series A, Vol. 28, Parts 2 and 3, 151-156.

Chernoff, H., Gastwirth, J.L. and Johns, M.V., Jr. (1967), Asymptotic Distribution of Linear Combinations of Functions of Order Statistics With Application to Estimation. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 38, 52-72.

Wolff, S.S., Rubin, H., and Gastwirth, J.L. (1967), Linear Optimum Predictors. Professional Group on Information Theory,* Vol. 11-13, 30-32.

Wolff, S.S. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1967), On Probability Distributions for Filtered White Noise. Professional Group on Information Theory,* Vol. 11-13, 481-484.

Wolff, S.S. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1967), Robust Two-Input Correlators. Journal of the Acoustical Society, 41, 1212-1219.

Wolff, S.S., Thomas, J.B., and Gastwirth, J.L. (1967), The Effect of Autoregressive Dependence on a Nonparametric Test. Professional Group on Information Theory,* Vol. 11-13, 311-313.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1968), The First Median Test: A Two-Sided Version of the Control Median Test. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 63, 692-706.

Bloch, D.A. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1968), On a Simple Estimate of the Reciprocal of the Density Function. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 39, 1083-1085.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Wolff, S.S. (1968), An Elementary Method for Obtaining Lower Bounds on the Asymptotic Power of Rank Tests. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 39, 2128-2130.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Rubin, H. (1969), On Robust Linear Estimators. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 40, 24-39.

Coleman, R. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1969), Some Models for Interaction of Renewal Processes Related to Neuron Firing. Journal of Applied Probability, 6, 38-58.

Gibbons, J.D. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1970), Properties of the Percentile Modified Rank Tests. Ann. Inst. Stat Math. Supplement 6, 95-114.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Cohen, M.L. (1970), The Small Sample Behavior of Some Robust Linear Estimators of Location. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 65, 946-973.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1970), On Asymptotic Relative Efficiency of a Class of Rank Tests. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 32, 227-232.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1970), On Robust Rank Tests. In Proceedings First Int. Symp. on Nonparametric Techniques in Statistical Inference, ed. by M.L. Puri, Cambridge University Press.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1971), A General Definition of the Lorenz Curve. Econometrica, 39, 1037-1038.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1971), On the Sign Test for Symmetry. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66, 821-828.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Rubin, H. (1971), The Behavior of the Level of Rank Tests on Dependent Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66, 816-820.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1972), Robust Estimation of the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index. Review of Economics and Statistics, 54, 306-316.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1972), On the Decline of Male Labor Force Participation. Monthly Labor Review, 95, 44-46.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Smith, J.T. (1973), A New Goodness of Fit Test. Business and Economics Statistics Section Proceedings of the 1972 Meeting of the American Statistical Association, 320-322.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1973), Estimating the Number of "Hidden Unemployed." Monthly Labor Review, 96, 17-26.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1974), A New Index of Income Inequality. Proceedings of the 39th ISI Meeting, August 1973, 437-441.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1974), Measurement of Earnings Differentials Between the Sexes. Invited paper, Social Statistics Section Proceedings of the 1973 Meeting of the American Statistical Association, 133-137.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1974), Large Sample Theory of Some Measures of Economic Inequality. Econometrica, 42, 191-196.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1975), The Estimation of a Family of Measures of Economic Inequality. Journal of Econometrics, 3, 61-70.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1975), Statistical Measures of Earnings Differentials. The American Statistician, 29, 32-35.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Rubin, H. (1975), Asymptotic Distribution Theory of the Empiric c.d.f. Mixing Stochastic Processes. Annals of Statistics, 3, 809-824.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Rubin, H. (1975), The Behavior of Robust Estimators on Dependent Data. Annals of Statistics, 3, 1070-1100.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Krieger, A. (1975), On Bounding Moments From Grouped Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 70, 486-491.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Haber, S. (1976), Defining the Labor Market for Equal Employment Standards. Monthly Labor Review, 99, 32-36. (Reprinted in Dreher, G.F. and Sackett, P.R. (1983) Perspectives on the Employees. Staffing and Selection: Readings and Commentary, Irwin: Homewood, Ill.)

Gastwirth, J.L. (1976), On Probabilistic Models of Consumer Search of Information. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90, 39-50.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Glauberman, M. (1976), On the Interpolation of the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index from Grouped Data. Econometrica, 44, 479-483.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1976), The Use of Probability and Statistics in Prosecuting Pyramid Fraud Cases. Economic Crime Digest, 3, 118-124.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1977), A Probability Model of a Pyramid Scheme (mathematical version of the previous paper). The American Statistician, 31, 79-82.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Owens, M. (1977), On Classical Tests of Normality. Biometrika, 64, 135-139.

Gail, M. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1978), A Scale-Free Goodness of Fit Test for the Exponential Distribution Based on the Lorenz Curve. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 73, 787-793.

Gail, M. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1978), A Scale-Free Goodness of Fit Test for the Exponential Distribution Based on Gini Statistic. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 40, 350-357.

Haber, S. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1978), Specifying the Labor Market for Individual Firms. Monthly Labor Review, 101, 26-30.

Krieger, A., Gastwirth, J.L. and Rubin, D. (1979), Statistical Analyses From Summary Data and Their Impact on the Issue of Confidentiality. Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods of the 1978 Meeting of the American Statistical Association.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Selwyn, M. (1980), The Robustness Properties of Two Tests for Serial Correlation. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 75, 138-141.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1981), Estimating the Demographic Mix of the Available Labor Force. Monthly Labor Review, 104, 50-57.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1982), Statistical Properties of a Measure of Tax Assessment Uniformity. Journal of the Statistical Inference and Planning, 6, 1-12.

Bhattacharya, P.K., Gastwirth, J.L. and Wright, L. (1982), On Nonparametric Tests of Symmetry. Biometrika, 69, 377-382.

Spruill, N. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1982), On the Estimation of the Correlation Coefficient from Grouped Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 77, 614-620.

Bhattacharya, P.K. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1983), A Non-Homogeneous Markov Model of a Chain Letter Scheme. Recent Advances in Statistics: Papers in Honor of Herman Chernoff, M.H. Rizvi, J.S. Rustagi, D. Siegmund (Eds.), Academic Press.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Wei, L.J. (1983), Estimating the Common Distribution Function from Two Samples Differing in Location. Journal of the Chinese Statistical Association, 21, Special Issue, 36-42.

Krieger, A. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1984), Interpolation from Grouped Data for Unimodal Densities. Econometrica, 52, 419-426.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1984), Two Statistical Methods for Analyzing Claims of Employment Discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 38, 75-86.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Bhattacharya, P.K. (1984), Two Probability Models of Pyramid or Chain Letter Schemes Demonstrating the Unreliability of the Claims of Promoters. Operations Research, 32, 527-536.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1985), The Use of Maximin Efficiency Robust Tests in Combining Contingency Tables and Survival Analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 80, 380-384.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Gail, M.H. (1985), Simple Asymptotically Distribution-Free Methods for Comparing Lorenz Curves and Gini Indices Obtained from Complete Data. Advances in Econometrics, 4, 229-243, D. Bassman and G. Rhodes, Jr. (Eds.), JAI Press, Greenwich, Conn.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Mahmoud, H. (1986), An Efficiency Robust Nonparametric Test for Change in Scale for the Gamma Family of Distributions. Technometrics, 28, 81-84.

Gastwirth, J.L., Nayak, T.K. and Krieger, A.M. (1986), Large Sample Theory for the Bounds on the Gini and Related Indices of Inequality Estimated from Grouped Data. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 4, 269-274.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Greenhouse, S.W. (1987), Estimating a Common Relative Risk: Application in Equal Employment. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 82, 38-45.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Wang, J.L. (1987), Nonparametric Tests in Small Unbalanced Samples: Application in Employment Discrimination Cases. Canadian Journal of Statistics, 15, 339-348.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1987), The Statistical Precision of Medical Screening Procedures: Application to Polygraph and AIDS Antibodies Test Data. Statistical Science, 2, 213-238.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Wang, J.L. (1988), Control Percentile Test Procedures for Censored Data. Journal of Statistical Inference and Planning, 18, 267-276.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Johnson, W.O. (1989), Testing the Homogeneity of Small Error Rates: Application to the Sensitivity of Different ELISA Tests for AIDS Antibodies. Statistics and Probability Letters, 7, 225-228.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1989), The Potential Effect of Unchecked Statistical Assumptions: A Fault in San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace vs. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Journal of Energy Law and Policy, 9, 177-194.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Hammick, P.A. (1989), Estimation of the Prevalence of a Rare Disease, Preserving the Anonymity of the Subjects by Group Testing: Application to Estimating the Prevalence of AIDS Antibodies in Blood Donors. Journal of Statistical Inference and Planning, 22, 15-27.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1989), A Clarification of Some Statistical Issues in Watson vs. Fort Worth Bank and Trust. Jurimetrics Journal, 29, 267-284.

Gastwirth, J.L., Nayak, T.K. and Wang, J.L. (1989), Statistical Properties of Measures of Between-Group Income Differentials. Journal of Econometrics, 42, 5-19.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Nayak, T.K. (1989), The Use of Diversity Analysis to Assess the Relative Influence of Factors Affecting the Income Distribution. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 7, 453-460.

Johnson, W.O. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1991), Asymptotics for the Bayesian Analysis of Medical Screening Tests: Application to AIDS Data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B., 53(2), 427-439.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1991), The Potential Effect of Unchecked Statistical Assumptions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 154, 121-123.

Gastwirth, J.L., Johnson, W.O. and Renau, D.M. (1991), Bayesian Analysis of Screening Data: Application of AIDS in Blood Donors. The Canadian Journal of Statistics, 19, 135-150.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Krieger, A.M. (1991), Bounds for P(X < Y) From Grouped Data. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 18, 111-117.

Gastwirth, J.L.(1992), Statistical Reasoning in the Legal Setting. American Statistician, 46,55-69.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Podgor, M. (1992), Efficiency Robust Rank Tests for the Location-Scale Problem. In Nonparametric Statistics and Related Topics (ed. by A. Saleh), 17-31.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1992), Methods for Assessing the Sensitivity of Statistical Comparisons Used in Title VII Cases to Omitted Variables. Jurimetrics Journal, 33, 19-33.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1992), Employment Discrimination: A Statistician's Look at Analysis of Disparate Impact Claims. Journal of Law & Inequality, XI, 151-179.

Toman, B.L. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1993), Robust Bayesian Experimental Design and Estimation Using a Class of Normal Mixtures. Journal of Statistical Inference and Planning, 35, 383-398.

Sinclair, M.D. and Gastwirth J.L. (1993), Evaluating Reinterview Survey Methods for Measuring Response Errors. Proceedings of the 1993 Research Conference of the Bureau of the Census.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Nayak, T.K. (1994), Statistical Measures of Racially Identified School Systems. Jurimetrics Journal, 34, 173-192.

Podgor, M. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1994), On Nonparametric and Generalized Tests for the Two-Sample Problem with Location and Scale Change Alternatives. Statistics in Medicine, 13, 745-758.

Toman, B.L. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1994), Efficiency Robust Bayesian Experimental Design and Estimation Using a Data-Based Prior. Statistics Sinica, 4, 603-615.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Johnson, W.O. (1994), Quality Control for Screening Tests: Potential Applications to HIV and Drug Use Detection. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 89, 972-981.

Gastwirth, J.L., Krieger, A.M. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (1994), How a Court Accepted an Impossible Explanation. The American Statistician, 48, 313-315.

Hammick, P.A. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1994), Group Testing for Sensitive Characteristics: Extension to Higher Prevalence Levels. International Statistical Review, 62, 319-331.

Podgor, M. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1994), On Methods for Assigning Scores for the Combination of Independent Two Sample Linear Rank Tests. Biometrics, 50, 1215-1218.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Greenhouse, S.W. (1995), Biostatistical Concepts and Methods in the Legal Setting. Statistics in Medicine, 14, 1641-1653.

Spruill, N.L. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1995), A Probability Model Illustrating the Employment Problems a Professional Couple Faces. Statistical Theory and Applications: Papers in Honor of H.A. David, ed. by H.N. Nagaraja, P.K. Sen and D.F. Morrison, 199-213.

Nayak, T.K. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1996), Statistical Measures of Economic Discrimination Useful in Evaluating Fairness. 1995 Proceedings Sec. on Government Statistics of the American Statistical Association, 87-94.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1996), Statistical Issues Arising in Equal Employment Litigation. Jurimetrics Journal, 36, 353-370.

Greenhouse, S.W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1996), The Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood and Mantel-Haenszel Estimators of the Common Odds Ratio in k 2x2 Tables. Modeling and Prediction: Honoring Seymour Geisser, ed. by J.C. Lee, W.O. Johnson and A. Zellner, 264-273.

Sinclair, M.D. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1996), On Procedures for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Reinterview Survey Methods: Application to Labor Force Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 91, 961-969.

Podgor, M.J., Gastwirth, J.L. and Mehta, C.R. (1996), Efficiency Robust Tests of Independence in Contingency Tables with Ordered Classifications. Statistics in Medicine, 15, 2095-2105.

Podgor, M.J. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1996), Efficiency Robust Rank Tests for Stratified Data. Research Developments in Probability and Statistics: Festschrift in Honor of Madan L. Puri, ed. by Brunner, E. and Denker, M.

Modarres, R. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1996), A Modified Runs Test for Symmetry. Statistics and Probability Letters, 31, 107-112.

Nayak, T.K. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1997), The Peters-Belson Approach to Measures of Economic and Legal Discrimination. Advances in the Theory and Practice of Statistics: A Volume in Honor of Samuel Kotz, ed. by Johnson, N.L. and Balakrishnan, N., 587-601.

Toman, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1997), The U.S. vs. Marine Shale Processors Case: Statistical Issues, Environmetrics 8, 533-540.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Nayak, T.K. (1997), Statistical Aspects of Cases Concerning Racial Discrimination in Drug Sentencing and Prosecution: Stephens vs. State and U.S. vs. Armstrong. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology,87, 583-603.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1997), Statistical Evidence in Discrimination Cases. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 160, 289-303. Reprinted in The Role of the Academic Economist in Litigation Support, edited by D.J. Slottje, 113-128.

Gastwirth, J.L., Krieger, A.M. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (1998), Dual and Simultaneous Sensitivity Analysis for Matched Pairs. Biometrika, 85, 907-920.)

Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1998), The Application of Change Point Tests to Data Occurring in Fair Hiring Cases. Asymptotic Methods in Statistics: A Volume in Honor of M. Csorgo, edited by B. Szyszkowicz, 551-562.)

Modarres, R. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1998), A Hybrid Test for the Hypothesis of Symmetry. Journal of Applied Statistics, 25, 777-783.

Csorgo, M., Gastwirth, J.L. and Zitikis, R. (1998), Asymptotic Confidence Bands for the Lorenz and Bonferroni Curves Based on the Empiric Lorenz Curve. Journal of Statistical Inference and Planning ,74 , 65-91.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Sinclair, M.D. (1998), The Potential Use of Diagnostic Test Methodology in the Design and Analysis of Judge-Jury Agreement Studies. Jurimetrics, 39, 59-78.

Sinclair, M.D. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1998), Estimates of the Errors in Classification in the Labor Force Survey and Their Effect on the Reported Unemployment Rate. Survey Methodology, 24, 157-169.

Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1999), Unconditional Versions of Several Tests Commonly Used in the Analysis of Contingency Tables. Biometrics, 55, 264-267.

Bhattacharya, P.K. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1999), Estimation of the Odds-Ratio in an Observational Study Using Bandwidth-Matching. Journal of Nonparametric Statistics, 11, 1-12.

Sinclair, M. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1999), The Utility of the Hui-Walter Paradigm for the Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests in the Analysis of Social Science Data. Diagnostic Test Methodology ed. by S. Geisser.

Freidlin, B., Podgor, M.J. and Gastwirth, J.L. (1999), Efficiency Robust Tests for Survival or Ordered Categorical Data. Biometrics, 55, 883-886.

Johnson, W.O. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000), Dual Group Test Screening. Journal of Statistical Inference and Planning, 83, 449-473.

Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000), Change Point Tests Designed for the Analysis of Hiring Data Arising in Equal Employment Cases. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 18, 315-322. (This article received an Outstanding Applications Award at the 2002 Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association.)

Sinclair, M.D. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000), Properties of the Hui and Walter and Related Methods for Estimating Prevalence Rates and Error Rates of Diagnostic Testing Procedures. Drug Information Journal, 605-615.

Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000). Should the Median Test be Retired from General Use? The American Statistician, 54, 161-164.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2000). Issues Arising in the Use of Statistical Evidence in Discrimination Cases. Statistical Science in the Courtroom ed. by Gastwirth, J.L., 227-243.

Gastwirth, J.L., Freidlin, B. and Miao, W. (2000). The Shonubi Case as an Example of the Legal Systems Failure to Appreciate Statistical Evidence. Statistical Science in the Courtroom ed. by Gastwirth, J.L., 405-413.

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000), Where is the Fisher Information in an Ordered Sample? Statistics Sinica, 10, 1267-1280.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Freidlin, B. (2000). On Efficiency and Power Robust Linkage Tests for Affected Sibs. Annals of Human Genetics, 64, 443-453.

Bura, E. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000). The Binary Regression Quantile Plot: Assessing the Importance of Predictors in Binary Regression Visually. Biometrical Journal, 43, 5-21.

Engels, E.A., Sinclair, M.D., Biggar, R.J., Whitby, D., Ebbesen, P., Goedert, J.J. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000). Latent Class Analysis of Human Herpesvirus 8 Assay Performance and Infection Prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa and Malta. International Journal of Cancer, 88, 1003-1008.

Li, Z. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2001), A Weighted Test Using Both Extreme Discordant and Concordant Sib-pairs for Detecting Linkage. Genetic Epidemiology, 20, 34-43.

Johnson, W.O., Gastwirth, J.L. and Pearson, L.M. (2001), Screening without a Gold Standard: The Hui-Walter Paradigm Revisited. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 921-924.

Yu, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2001). Evaluating the Accuracy of Art Auction Pre-sale Predictions: How well do Selection Models Perform? (to appear in the Proceedings of the Business and Economics Section of the 2000 Meeting of the American Statistical Association).

Johnson, W.O., Hanson, T., Gastwirth, J.L. and Gardner, I.A. (2001), Pooled Sample Screening with Quality Control. (to appear in Proceedings International Society of Bayesian Analysis).

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2001), On the Fisher Information in Randomly Censored Data. Statistics and Probability Letters, 52, 421-426.

Yang, X., Goldstein, A.M., Chase, G.A., Gastwirth, J.L. and Goldin, L.R. (2001). Use of Weighted P-values in Regional Inference Procedures. Genetic Epidemiology, 21 (Supp. 1), S484-489.

Pfeiffer, R., Rutter, J., Struewing, J, Gail, M. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). Efficiency of DNA Pooling to Estimate the Joint Allele Frequencies and a Measure of Linkage Disequilibrium. Genetic Epidemiology, 22, 94-102.

Modarres, R., Nayak, T.K. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). Estimation of Upper Quantiles and Model Uncertainty. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 39, 529-554.

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). The Most Informative Ordered Data for the Scale Parameter of Symmetric Distributions with Application to BLUEs (to appear in the Proceedings of the Quality Control Section of the 2001 Meeting of the American Statistical Association).

Zheng, G., Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). Robust TDT-type Candidate-Gene Association Tests. Annals of Human Genetics, 66, 145-155.

Li, Z., Gail, M.H., Pee, D. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). Statistical Properties of Teng and Rischs Sibship Type Tests for Detecting an Association between Disease and a Candidate Allele. Human Heredity, 53, 114-129.

Freidlin, B., Zheng, G., Li, Z. and Gastwirth J.L. (2002). Trend Tests for Case-Control Studies of Genetic Markers: Power, Sample Size and Robustness. Human Heredity, 53, 146-152.

Zheng, G, Freidlin, B and Gastwirth, JL (2002). Obtaining robust TDT-type candidate-gene association tests for a family of genetic models. 2002 Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Biometrics Section [CD-ROM], Alexandria, VA: ASA.

Zitikis, R and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). The Asymptotic Distribution of the S-Gini Index . Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics, 44, 439-446.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Miao, W. (2002). The Potential Effect of Dependence in the Analysis of Data in Jury Discrimination Cases: Moultrie v. Martin Reconsidered. Jurimetrics, 43, 115-128.

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). Do Tails of Symmetric Distributions Contain More Fisher Information About the Scale Parameter? Sankyha (B), 64, 1-12.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). Issues Arising in Using Samples as Evidence in Trademark Cases. Journal of Econometrics, 113, 69-82.

Zheng, G., Freidlin, B., Li, Z. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). Choice of Scores in Trend Tests for Case-Control Studies of Candidate-Gene Associations. Biometrical Journal, 45, 335-348.

Zou, K.H., Gastwirth, J.L. and McNeil, B.J. (2003) A Goodness-of-Fit Test for a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve from Continuous Diagnostic Test Data in Crossing Boundaries: Statistical Essays in Honor of Jack Hall. (Ed J. E. Kolassa and D. Oakes) 59-68.

Li, Z, Xie, M and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). When Can the Haseman-Elston Procedure be Improved: Insights from Optimal Design Theory. Development of Modern Statistics and Related Topics: In Celebration of Prof. Y. Zhangs 70th Birthday (Ed. H. Zhang and J. Huang), 246-261.

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). Fisher Information in Ordered Randomly Censored Data with Applications to Characterization Problems. Statistica Sinica, 13, 507-513.

Freidlin, B., Zheng, G., Li, Z. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). Efficiency Robust Tests for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Extremely Discordant Sib Pairs. Human Heredity, 55, 117-124.

Freidlin, B., Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). On the Use of the Shapiro-Wilk Test in Two-Stage Adaptive Inference for Paired Data with Moderate to Heavy Tails. Biometrical Journal, 45, 887-900.

Yu, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). The reverse Cornfield Inequality and its Use in the Analysis of Epidemiologic Data. Statistics in Medicine, 22, 3383-3401.

Gastwirth, J.L., Miao, W. and Zheng, G. (2003). Statistical Issues Arising in Disparate Impact Cases and the Use of the Expectancy Curve in Assessing the Validity of Pre-Employment Tests. Review of the International Statistical Institute, 71, 565-580.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). The Need for Careful Evaluation of Epidemiological Evidence in Product Liability Cases: A Reexamination of Wells v. Ortho and Key Pharmaceuticals. Law, Probability and Risk, 2, 151-189.

Li, Z. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2004). On the Power of Affected Relative Pair Designs for Linkage Studies. Annals of Human Genetics, 68, 65-68.

Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2004). The Effect of Dependence on Confidence Intervals for a Population Proportion. American Statistician, 58, 124 130.

Rao, S., Graubard, B., Breen, N and Gastwirth, J.L. (2004). Understanding the Underlying Disparities in Cancer Screening Rates Using the Peters-Belson Approach: Results from the National Health Survey. Medical Care, 42, 789-800.

Zheng, G., Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2004). Using Kullback-Leibler Information for Model Selection when the Data-generating Model is Unknown: Applications to Genetic Testing Problems. Statistica Sinica, 14, 1021-1036.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Freidlin, B. (2004). A Note on the Use of Tests of Mutation Rates on Ordered Groups. Genetic Testing, 8, 437-440.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Sinclair, M.D. (2004), A Re-examination of the Kalven-Zeisel Study of Judge-Jury Agreements Using Modern Contingency Table Analysis Techniques. Law, Probability and Risk, 3, 169-191.

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2005). Fisher information in randomly sampled sib pairs and extremely discordant sib pairs in genetic analysis for a quantitative trait locus. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 130, 299-315.

Zheng, G., Freidlin B., Li, Z. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2005). Genomic Control for Association Studies: Variance Inflation Factors and Tests for Recessive and Dominant Models. Biometrics, 61, 186-192.

Li, Z, Gastwirth, J.L. and Gail, M.H. (2005). Power and Related Statistical Properties of Conditional Likelihood Ratio Score Tests for Association Studies in Nuclear Families with Parental Genotypes. Annals of Human Genetics, 69, 296-314.

Yu, B.B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2005). Sensitivity Analysis for Trend Tests: Application to the Risk of Radiation Exposure. Biostatistics, 6, 201-209.

Modarres, R., Gastwirth, J.L. and Ewens, W.E. (2005). A cautionary note on the Use of Nonparametric tests in the Analysis of Environmental Data. Environmetrics, 16, 319-326.

Graubard, B.I., Rao, R.S. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2005) Using the Peters-Belson Method to Measure Health Care Disparities form Complex Survey Data. (to appear in Statistics in Medicine).

Small, D., Krieger, A.M., Gastwirth, J.L. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (2005). R-Estimates vs. GMM: A Theoretical Case Study of Validity and Efficiency. (to appear in Statistical Science).

Hanson, T, Johnson, W.O. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2005). Bayesian inference for prevalence and diagnostic test accuracy based on dual pooled screening (to appear in Biostatistics).

Modarres, R.M. and Gastwirth (2006). A Cautionary Note on Estimating the Standard Error of the Gini Index of Inequality. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 68, 455-461.

Small, D., Krieger, A.M., Gastwirth, J.L. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (2006). R-Estimates vs. GMM: A Theoretical Case Study of Validity and Efficiency. Statistical Science, 21, 363-375.

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2006).On estimation of the variance in Cochran-Armitage trend tests for genetic association using case-control studies. Statistics in Medicine, 25, 3150-3159.

Zheng, G., Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2006). Comparison of Robust Tests for Genetic Association Using Case Control Studies. IMS Lecture Notes--Monograph Series 2006, Vol. 49, 253-265 (ed. J. Rojo).

Bura, E. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2006). Assessing the Fairness of a Firm’s Allocation of Shares in Initial Public Offerings: Adapting a Measure from Biostatistics. Chance, 19, 32-37.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2006). A Sixty Million Dollar Statistical Issue Arising in the Interpretation and Calculation of a Measure of Relative Disparity: Zuni Public School District 89 v. U.S. Department of Education. Law, Probability and Risk, 5, 33-61.

Miao, W., Gel, Y. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2006). A new non-parametric test of symmetry. In Random Walk, Sequential Analysis and Related Topics – A Festschrift in Honor of Yuan-Shih Chow(ed. A. Hsiung, C.H. Zhang and Z. Ying), 199-214.

Gel, Y.R., Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2007). Robust Directed Tests of Normality Against Heavy Tailed Distributions. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 51, 2734-2746.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2007). A Graphical Summary of Health Care Rates and Related Measures of Disparity. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 137, 1059-1065 (Special Issue on Nonparametric Statistics and Related Topics: In honor of M.L. Puri).

Gel, Y. R. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2008). A Robust Modification of the Jarque-Bera Test of Normality. Economics Letters, 99, 30-32.

Yu, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2008). A Method of Assessing the Sensitivity of Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Test to an Unobserved Confounder. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences-A, 366, 2377-2388.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2008). Case comment: an expert’s report criticizing plaintiff’s failure to account for multiple comparisons is deemed admissible in EEOC v. Autozone. Law, Probability and Risk, 7, 61-74.

Kaye, D.H. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2008). The Disappearance that Wasn’t? “Random Variation” in the Number of Women Supreme Court Clerks. Jurimetrics Journal, 48, 457-463.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2008). The U.S. Supreme Court Finds a Statute’s Description of a Simple Statistical Measure of Relative Disparity “Ambiguous” Allowing the Secretary of Education to Interpret the Formula: Zuni Public School 89 v. U.S. Department of Education II. Law, Probability and Risk, 7, 225-248.

Hui, W.H., Gel, Y.R. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2008). Lawstat: an R –package for Law, Public Policy and Biostatistics. Journal of Statistical Software, 28, 1-26.

Li, Z., Zhang, H., Zheng, G., Gastwirth, J.L. and Gail, M.H. (2009). Excess false positive rate caused by population stratification and disease rate heterogeneity in case-control association studies. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 53, 1767-1781.

Pan, Q. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2009). Issues in the Use of Survival Analysis to Estimate Damages in Equal Employment Cases. Law, Probability and Risk, 8, 1-24.

Bura, E. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2009). How accurate are the power calculations relied on by the SEC. Law, Probability and Risk, 8, 277-288.

Gel, Y., Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2009). The Effect of Dependence between Observations on the Proper Interpretation of Statistical Evidence. Law, Probability and Risk, 8, 25-38.

Small, D., Krieger, A.M., Gastwirth, J.L. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (2009). Simultaneous Sensitivity analysis for Observational Studies Using Full matching or matching with Multiple Controls. Statistics and the Interface, 2, 203-211.

Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2009). A New Two-Stage Adaptive Nonparametric Test for Paired Differences. Statistics and the Interface, 2, 213-221.

Chatterjee, N., Graubard, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2009). The Use of the Risk Percentile Curve in the Analysis of Epidemiologic Data. Statistics and the Interface, 2, 123-131.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Miao, W. (2009). Formal statistical analysis of the data in disparate impact cases provides sounder inferences than the government’s “four-fifths” rule: examining the statistical evidence in Ricci v. DeStefano. Law, Probability and Risk, 8, 171-191.

Kaye, D.H. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2009).Where Have All the Women Gone? The Gender Gap in Supreme Court Clerkships. Jurimetrics, 49, 411-437.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Pan, Q. (2009). Diaz v. Eagle Produce Ltd. Partnership: The Potential for and Limitations of Formal Statistical Analysis to Assist Courts When Drawing Inferences from a Relatively Small Data Set. Jurimetrics, 49, 439-466.

Gastwirth, J.L., Gel, Y.R. and Miao, W. (2009) The Impact of Levene’s Test of Equality of Variances on Statistical Theory and Practice. Statistical Science, 24, 343-360.

Zheng, G., Li, Z., Gail, M.H. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2010) Impact of Population Substructure on Trend Tests for Genetic Case-Control Studies. Biometrics, 66, 194-204.

Yu, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2010). How well do Selection Models Perform? The Case of Art Auction Pre-Sale Estimates. Statistics Sinica, 20, 837-852.

Bura, E. and Gastwirth, J. L. (2010). Regression Analysis and Strengthening the SEC’s Efforts to Regulate Mutual Funds. Banking Financial Services Policy Report, 29 (6), 18-26.

Hikawa, H., Bura, E., and Gastwirth, J. L. (2010). Local Linear Logistic Peters-Belson Regression and its application in employment discrimination cases. Statistics and the Interface, 3, 125-144.

Gastwirth, J. L. and Pan, Q. (2011). Statistical measures and methods for assessing the representativeness of juries: a reanalysis of the data in Berghuis v. Smith. Law, Probability and Risk, 10, 17-57.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2011). Case comment: the need for careful analysis of the statistical summary in the response to the complaint in the SEC v. Goldman Sachs case. Law, Probability and Risk, 10, 77-87.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Johnson, W.O. (2011). Dare you buy a Henry Moore on eBay? Significance (March issue) 10-14. (A summary of the next article for a general audience).

Gastwirth, J.L., Johnson, W.O. and Hikawa, H. (2011). Estimating the fraction of ‘non-genuine’ artwork by Henry Moore for sale on eBay: application of latent class screening test methodology. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (A), 174, 805-822.

Bura, E., Hikawa, H. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2011). The Use of Peters-Belson regression in legal cases. Festschrift in honor of P.K. Bhattacharya, ed. By Jiang, J., Roussas,G. and Samaniengo, F. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 213-231.

Gastwirth, J.L., Bura, E. and Miao, W. (2011). Some important statistical issues courts should consider in their assessment of statistical analyses submitted in class certification motions: implications for Dukes v. Wal-Mart. Law, Probability and Risk, 10, 225-263.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2012).Statistical considerations support the Supreme Court’s decision in Matrixx Initiatives v. Siracusano. Jurimetrics, 52, 155-175.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2012). The Need for Courts and Policy Makers to Carefully Evaluate Criticisms of Statistical Evidence (to appear in a special issue of Revista i-lex, edited by Dr. A. Serpe).

Pan, Q. and Gastwirth J.L. (2013). The Appropriateness of Survival Analysis for Determining Lost Pay in Discrimination Cases when the number of plaintiffs exceeds the number of job openings: Application of the “Lost Chance” Doctrine to Alexander v. Milwaukee, 12, 13-36. (The special issue devoted to papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Forensic Inference and Statistics, edited by Prof. Colin G.G. Aitken).

Gastwirth, J.L. and Yu, B. (2013). Case comment: Appropriate Statistical Methodology Yields Stronger Evidence of Discriminatory Peremptory Challenges in North Carolina: Application to the Randolph County Data in North Carolina v. Rouse and related cases. Law, Probability and Risk, 12, 155-164.

Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2013). Properties of statistical tests appropriate for the analysis of data arising in disparate impact cases. Law, Probability and Risk, 12, 37-62. (The special issue of Law, Probability and Risk devoted to papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Forensic Inference and Statistics, edited by Prof. Colin G.G. Aitken).

Gastwirth, J.L. (2013). The need to carefully interpret the statistics reporting the accuracy of a narcotics detection dog: Application to South Dakota v. Nguyen, State of Florida v. Harris and similar cases. Jurimetrics, 53, 415-446.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2013). Should law and public policy adopt ‘practical causality’ as the appropriate

criteria for deciding product liability cases and public policy? Law, Probability and Risk, 12, 169-18. (The special issue devoted to papers from the Third International Conference on Quantitative Justice and Fairness: Inference and Causality, edited by Vern R. Walker, Paulo de Sousa Mendes, Rui Soares Pereira, Qing Pan and Rainhard Bengez).

Pan, Q. and Gastwirth, J.L, (2013). Estimating restricted mean job tenures in semi-competing risk data compensating victims of discrimination. Annals of Applied Statistics, 7, 1474-1496.

Xu, W, Pan, Q. and Gastwirth, J.L (2014).Cox proportional hazards models with frailty for negatively correlated employment processes. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 70, 295-307.

Xu, W., Pan, Q. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2014) Adaptive procedures for nested processes: application to equal employment. Statistics and Its Interface, 7, 153-165.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Xu, W. (2014) Statistical tools for evaluating the adequacy of the size of a sample on which statistical evidence is based. Law, Probability and Risk, 13, 277-306 (Special Issue from the Workshop on Formal Argument and Evidential Inference, edited by Scott Brewer, Gustavo Ribeiro and Giovanni Sartor).

Miao, W. and Gastwirth J.L. (2014). New statistical tests for detecting disparate impact arising from two-stage selection processes. The American Statistician, 68, 146-157.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2014). Median-based measures of inequality: Reassessing the increase in income inequality in the U.S. and Sweden. Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 30, 311-320.

Gastwirth, J.L. Xu, W. and Pan. Q. (2014) Did the Michigan Supreme Court Appreciate the Implications of Adopting the “Disparity of the Risk” Measure of Minority Representation in Jury Pools in People v. Bryant? Statistics and Public Policy, 1, 129-132, DOI: 10.1080/2330443X.2014.997409.

Li, Y., Graubard, B.I., Huang, P. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2015). Extension of the Peters-Belson method to estimate health disparities among multiple groups using logistic regression with survey data. Statistics in Medicine, 34, 595-612.

Zheng, G. Zhang, W, Li, Q, Xu, J., Yuan, A. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2015) Analysis of genetic association studies incorporating prior information of genetic models. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 20 (2), 173-191.

Lai, Y. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2015). Outlier reset CUSUM for the exploration of copy number

alteration data. Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology, 14 (4), 333-345.

Gastwirth, J.L., Xu, W. and Pan, Q. (2015). Statistical measures for evaluating protected group under-representation: Analysis of the conflicting inferences drawn from the same data in People v. Bryant and Ambrose v. Booker. Law, Probability and Risk, 14 (4), 279-304. (Special issue edited by Dr. Charles Berger and Prof. F. Taroni).

Gastwirth, J.L. (2016). Statistical Testing of Peremptory Challenge Data for Possible Discrimination: Application to Foster v. Chatman. Vanderbilt Law Review En Banc, 69, 51-95.

(Cited in Chamberlin v. Fisher, 885 F.3d 832 (5th Cir. 2018); Hutchinson v. Folino, 2018 US Dist. LEXIS 124573 ED. Pa)).

Lyon, M., Li Cheung and Gastwirth, J.L. (2016) The Importance of group means for estimating the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index from grouped data. American Statistician, 70, 25-32.

Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2016). Statistical Issues Arising in Class Action Cases: A Reanalysis of the Statistical Evidence in Dukes v. Wal-Mart II. Law, Probability and Risk, 15,155-174.

Zheng, G., Zhang, W, Xu, J., Yuan, A, Li, Q. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2016). Genetic Risks and Genetic Model Specification. Theoretical Biology, 403, 68-74.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2016). Measures of Economic Inequality Focusing on the Status of the Lower and Middle Income Groups. Statistics and Public Policy, 3, 1, 1-9.

Gastwirth, J.L., Miao, W. and Pan, Q. (2017). Statistical issues in Kerner v. Denver: A class action disparate impact case. Law, Probability and Risk, 16, 35-53.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2017). Is the Gini index of inequality overly sensitive to changes in the middle of the distribution? (Statistics and Public Policy, 4; published on line, https://doi.org/10.1080/2330443X.2017.1360813).

Gastwirth, J.L. (2017). Some recurrent problems in interpreting statistical evidence in equal employment cases. Law, Probability and Risk, 16, 181-201. (Special issue in honor of Prof. S. E. Fienberg, edited by Prof. J. Mortera). (cited by the Office of Federal Compliance guidance on practical significance issued on July 23, 2019).

Zheng, G, Li, Q., Xu, J., Yuan, A. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2018). Evaluating the accuracy of small p-values in genetic association studies using Edgeworth expansions. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 45, 1-33(published on line, DOI: 10.1111/sjos.12283).

Hyun, N., Gastwirth, J.L. and Graubard, B.I. (2018). Grouping methods for estimating the prevalence of rare traits from complex survey data that preserve confidentiality of respondents.

Statistics in Medicine, 37 (13), 2174-2186. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.7648

Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2018). Case comment: estimating the economic value of the loss of a chance: a re-examination of Chaplin v. Hicks, Law Probability and Risk, 17, 279-293. https://doi.org/10.1093/lpr/mgy011

Zhang, X. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2019) Large sample properties of a new measure of income inequality. Statistics and Probability Letters, 145, 50-56.

Gastwirth, J. L. (2020). The role of statistical evidence in civil cases. Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application (to appear).

Pan, Q., Miao, W. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2020). Statistical procedures for assessing the need for an affirmative action plan: A Reanalysis of Shea v Kerry, Statistics and Public Policy, 7:1, 1-8, DOI: 10.1080/2330443X.2019.1693313

Liu, Y. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2020). On the capacity of the Gini index to represent income distributions. (To appear in METRON).

Gastwirth, J.L. (2020). How the legal system’s failure to appreciate statistical evidence disadvantages plaintiffs in discrimination cases. (To appear in Leadership and Diversity in Statistics and Data Science: Planning for Inclusive Excellence. Ed. A. Goldbeck. New York: Springer.

* Professional Group on Information Theory was renamed IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.

### Book Reviews

David, H.A. (1970), Order Statistics. American Scientist (1971), 59, 637.

Special Issue on the Current Population Survey (1973). Annals of Economic and Social Measurement (1973), 2, No. 2. in Review of Public Data Use, 1, No. 3, 20-22.

Lehmann, E.L. (1975), Nonparametrics: Statistical Methods Based on Ranks. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 83, 967-973.

DeGroot, M.H., Fienberg, S.E. and Kadane, J.B. (1986), Statistics in the Law. Jurimetrics Journal (1988), 345-350.

Finkelstein, M.O. and Levin, B. (1990), Statistics for Lawyers. Journal of The American Statistical Association (1991), 544-545.

Sprent, P. (1994), Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods (2nd ed.). Technometrics, 36,216-217.

Diamond, S.S. (1994), Reference Guide on Survey Research (in Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence). Jurimetrics Journal, 36, 181-191.

Federal Judicial Center (1994), Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence. The American Statistician, 51, 297-299.

Foster, K.R., Bernstein, D.R. and Huber, P.W. (eds.) (1995) Phantom Risk: Scientific Inference and the Law. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 90, 388-390.

Posner, R.A. (2002), Breaking the Deadlock: The 2000 Election and the Courts. Law, Probability and Risk, 1, 53-65.

### Invited comments on articles

Hogg, R.V. (1974), Adaptive Robust Procedures (Invited Paper). Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69, 909-922. Comments on 925-926.

Duncan, G. and Lambert, D. (1986), Disclosure Limited Data Dissemination. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 10-22. Comments on 23-25.

Dempster, A.P. (1988), Employment Discrimination and Statistical Science. Statistical Science, 3, 149-161. Comments on 175-183.

Kaigh, W.D. (1989), A Category Representation Paradox. The American Statistician, 43, 92-94. Comments on 94-96.

Nesson, C. (1991), The Incentives to Destroy Evidence. Cardozo Law Review, 13, 817-829.

Gray, M. (1993), Can Statistics Tell Us What we do Not Want to Hear? The Case of Complex Salary Structures. Statistical Science 8, 144-158. Comment on 165-171.

Gastwirth, J.L., Krieger, A.M. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (1997), Reply to Poole and Greenland: Unquestionably Impossible. The American Statistician, 51, 115-116.

Gastwirth, J.L., Krieger, A.M. and Rosenbaum, P.R. (1997), Reply to Mintz and Dixon: Hypotheticals and Hypotheses. The American Statistician, 51, 120-121.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). Comment on the Age Discrimination Example, 42, Jurimetrics J. 333-340.

### Refereed letters

Gastwirth, J.L. (2000), The Efficiency of Pooling in the Detection of Rare Mutations. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 1036-1039.

Kaye, D.H. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2006). Female High Court Clerks: Drop could be anomaly. National Law Journal, 29, 27 (October 30th).

### Encyclopedia entries

Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences (ed. by Kotz, S., Johnson, N.L. and Read, C.)

Measures of Uniformity v.5, 405-409.

Pyramid Scheme Models v.7, 368-370.

Runs Tests for Symmetry Update Vol. 3 (1999), 735-738.

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics (1998), (ed. by Armitage, P. and Colton, T.)

Epidemiology as Legal Evidence v. 2, 1357-1361.

Medico-Legal Cases and Statistics v. 4, 2563-2568.

Cornfield's Inequality (with Krieger, A.M. and Rosenbaum, P.R.) v. 1, 952-955.

Scores (with Podgor, M.J.) v. 5, 3971-3975.

Encyclopedia of Epidemiology (2000), (ed. by M.H. Gail and J. Benichou).

Updated versions of the entries on Epidemiology as Legal Evidence and Cornfields Inequality appear in the Encyclopedia of Biostatistics..

Law and Environmental Statistics (with T.K. Nayak) in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics ( ed. By W. Piegorsch and L. Cox, 2002) vol. 2, 1142-1146.

Screening and Selection in International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences (to appear in the Statistics volume ed. by S.E. Fienberg and J. B. Kadane).

Statistical Inequalities (with H. Mahmoud) in International Encyclopedia of Education (ed. P. Peterson, E. Baker & B. McGaw), vol. 7, 426-428. Oxford: Elsevier.

### Technical reports

Gastwirth, J.L. and Venter, J.H., Adaptive Statistical Methods. Stanford University, Technical Report No. 99.

Gastwirth, J.L. and Wolff, S.S., A Characterization of the Laplace Distribution. Department of Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University, Technical Report No. 28.

Gastwirth, J.L., A Renewal Theoretic Approach to a First Passage Time Problem Occurring in a Neuron Firing Model. Department of Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University, Technical Report No. 77.

Gastwirth, J.L. and McNeil, D.R., On Order Statistics in Grouped Samples. Department of Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University, Technical Report No. 134.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1979), Evaluating the Accuracy of Art Auction Estimates. Department of Statistics, The George Washington University, Technical Report.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1979), A Statistical Problem Arising in Jury Discrimination Cases. Department of Statistics, The George Washington University, Technical Report.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1980), Statistical Issues Arising in the Use of Labor Statistics in Equal Employment Litigation. Department of Statistics, The George Washington University, Technical Report. (A shortened version was published in the Monthly Labor Review, 1981.)

Gastwirth, J.L. (1982), The Use of Combined Test of Significance in Equal Employment Cases (preliminary version). Department of Statistics, George Washington University, Technical Report. (A revised version was published in the Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 1984).

Gastwirth, J.L. and Johnson, W.O. (1989), A Test for Trends in Every Low Incidence Rates: Application to HIV-Antibody Screening of Blood Donations in the U.K. and France.

Gastwirth, J.L. (1992), Ward's Cove Packing, Inc. et. al. vs. Antonio: How Inadequate Statistical Evidence and Reasoning Contributes to Questionable Decisions (A revised version appeared in the Journal of Law and Inequality).

Li, Z and Gastwirth, J.L. (2000). The Effect of a Small Fraction of Undetected Half Sibs on Linkage Studies Using ED and EC Sib Pairs.

Johnson, W.O., Hanson, T., Gastwirth, J.L. and Gardner, I.A. (2000). Pooled Sample Screening with Quality Control.

Li, Z, Xie, M and Gastwirth, J.L. (2001) Nested Linear Models for Linkage and Candidate-gene Association Analysis: A Unified Approach to Haseman and Elston Procedures (being revised for publication).

Yu, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002) How well do Selection Models Perform? The Case of Art Auction Pre-Sale Estimates. (Being revised for publication).

Sinclair, M.D. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2002) An Assessment of Correlated Test Results in the Evaluation of Medical Tests.

Gastwirth, J.L. (2002). A Graphical Summary of Health Care Rates and Related Measures of Disparity. (Being revised for publication).

Chatterjee, N., Graubard, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2003). The Use of the Risk Percentile Curve in the Analysis of Epidemiologic Data. (Being revised for publication).

Zheng, G., Freidlin, B. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2004). Comparison of Robust Tests for Genetic Association Using Case Control Studies (submitted to the 2nd Conference in honor of Prof. E.L. Lehmann).

Zheng, G. and Gastwirth, J.L. (2005).On estimation of the variance in Cochran-Armitage trend tests for genetic association using case-control studies.